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Quenya Sindarin Telerin Qenya Gnomish & Noldorin
Adûnaic Westron Khuzdul Black Speech Valarin
Old English – Tolkien Old English Middle English
Gothic Old Norse Finnish Welsh Latin
Welsh – Cymraeg – belongs to the Brythonic branch of Celtic language; it is closely akin to Breton and Cornish. It is spoken by more than half a million people, mainly in Wales. It is written since the 7th or even the 6th century, making it one of the earliest modern tongues in Europe. Tolkien revealed in the essay English and Welsh published in the collection The Monsters and the Critics that he especially liked the sound and style of Welsh. It provided the chief inspiration for the branch of his invented languages that yielded Sindarin.

Ein Tad Pater noster.
Henffych well Mair Ave Maria.
Gogoniant i’r Tad Gloria Patri.
English and Welsh – Welsh words quoted by Tolkien in this essay published in The Monsters and the Critics.
Pwyll Pendefig Dyfed Pwyll prince of Dyfed, beginning of the first of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi, a collection of tales in Middle Welsh.
Clychau Cantre’r Gwaelod The Bells of Cantre’r Gwaelod, a poem by J. J. Williams.

The works of John Ronald Reuel and Christopher Tolkien are under the copyright of their authors and/or rights holders, including their publishers and the Tolkien Estate.
Quotations from other authors, editors and translators mentioned in the bibliography are under the copyright of their publishers, except for those whose copyright term has ended.
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