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Adûnaic was the mother tongue of most of the Númenoreans in the Second Age. It was a Mannish language, yet strongly infused with Elvish elements: it originated in the speech of the House of Hador in the First Age. Adûnaic was first cast into the background by the Elvish languages, but its star rose when the Númenoreans gave up their friendship with the Elves. After the downfall of Númenor, it was no longer cultivated, remained as a mere vernacular and was modified to form the basic component of the future Westron or Common Speech of the Third Age.

Akallabêth – Fragments of a lament on the downfall of Númenor. Sauron Defeated, p. 247. Corresponding versions in Qenya and Old English can also be found on this website.
Exclamations in Adûnaic – Uttered by Alwin Arundel Lowdham and Wilfrid Trewin Jeremy in The Notion Club Papers. Sauron Defeated, pp. 250-251.
Adûnaic names of the kings of Númenor Unfinished Tales, second part, chapter 3.
Other Adûnaic names – Picked up from The Silmarillion, Unfinished Tales and the collection The History of Middle-earth.

The works of John Ronald Reuel and Christopher Tolkien are under the copyright of their authors and/or rights holders, including their publishers and the Tolkien Estate.
Quotations from other authors, editors and translators mentioned in the bibliography are under the copyright of their publishers, except for those whose copyright term has ended.
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